The Congo Impact: Cause of the Glacial Periods
Author: Geologist Dr. Heinrich Winkler
FIRST PUBLICATION: all rights reserved, translated from German (original version)
According to INQUA (2006), IUGS (2009) and ICS (2009) the glacial period starts at the beginning of the Quarternary 2.588 million years ago at the frontier of Pliocene/Pleistocene (at the beginning of Gelasium, named after Gela on Sicily). At that time a pole reversal of the earth magnetic field takes place (Gauss-Matuyama-Grenze: magnetic Polarity-Chronozone C2n Olduvai). The average temperature of the earth suddenly declines about 15C degrees. The arctic pole cup of the earth begins to freeze over. In the sea there immediately die out calcareous Nannoplankton index fossils (Discoaster pentaradiatus, Discoaster surculus and Discoaster brouweri at the basement of the zone NC13).
Up to now a concrete cause of the activation of the glacial periods was not stated.
The cause of the glacial periods shall be here demonstrated with a thesis on the basis of existing evidence and facts. About 2.588 million years ago a 30 km large comet hits rectangularly and above all horizontally the equator (like a beat on the edge of a spinner), the „skit mark“ is 2000 km long from Katanga to Bangui, the tectonic marginal rifts left and right to the equatorial „grazing shot“ with their rivers of terraces (ditches) are spreaded over 900 km. As an impact diameter is approximately thirty times larger than the comet, this comet was 30 km large. The kinetic energy (energy of impact) is above all transformed to friction energy and tectonic pressure on the earth's crust and it blows the overheated dust up to the stratosphere.This sandy dust cloud moves from Congo and the Bangui-Anomaly to the east releasing the sand as rain over East Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Australia (genesis of opal?) and the Pacific. The powder itself covers the whole earth. After 250 million years for the first time glacial periods starts again.
The impact event simultaneously leads to large continental earthquakes. In the east of the Congo Basin the marginals volcanoes arise, such as the Virunga-Chain, as well at the same time the Krakatau arises just like other volcanoes too. The ocean linkage between Pacific and Atlantic in the area of Panama is disrupted by the arising Central American volcanoes. The warm ocean-current is interrupted from the Pacific into the Atlantic and to the Arctic and it generates the small Gulf Stream in the direction to Europe (30 million l/sec warm water of thermohaline circulation). The formerly stable axis of the earth (23,5°declination) tumbles since the impact about +/-1,5°. The days on earth are getting longer, it would be detectable by the daily growth strips of corals or sponges per year.
On the basis of the oscillating axis of the earth with the cyclical altered insolation on the polar caps (after 250 million
years!) for the first time again glacial periods set in.
The thermal course of the six glacial periods is so far explained by calculations of cycles of insolation by Milutin
Die Bangui-Magnet-Anomaly (BMA) is the strongest magnet anomaly of the earth and it is located in the Central African Republic. It reaches 250 km from north-west to south-east and approxmately 100 km from north-east to south-west, it has four magnetmaxima, each has a diameter of about 50 km, it reaches in the depth in the west 38 km and in the east 54 km. A further anomaly point is located at the border of Cameroon. According to current literature this point is caused by an iron rich mafic deposit. But a magnetic anomaly in this depth is geologically not explicable owing to lacking tectonic, mafic seperation and palingenesis.
Bordering on the south-east it is located as a counterpart a comparably huge, massive
magnet anomaly, but as a contrary magnet-weakness-anomaly.
The Congo Basin
The Congo Basin located on 300 m sea level is a unstratified „sand mine“ till a depth of 4 km (that means, that it also reaches 4 km below the sea level), at which the rocky basement first starts in a depth of 4 km, unique for a craton and until now without any explaination.This oval basin is also upcurved at the drain to the Atlantic on 284 m (Kinshasa). The Congo is the single great river worldwide which has to overflow a terrace, the river still has not eroded downwards and it has no delta, therefore it is geologically very young. Furthermore, it developed by turbidity current a 1500 km long and 30 km wide abyssal channel in the continental shelf.
Moreover, it is most uncommon, that the River Congo without any tectonic cause (no subduction zone) is partial more than 150 m deep without being eroded or replenished by the annual floods, therefore it has to be geologically young, completely different to the Amazonas, it flows a long time in the west and after the Andine orogeny rock formation in the east direction. A geological young impact of a comet explains the depth of 150 m of the River Congo. Well drillings in the Congo Basin down to a depth of 100 m delivered only redcolored sediments and red ground water, whereas tropically caused laterite soils (tropical weathering with rest of iron) only reach some meters in the depth. A reddening of sediments usually refers to high temperatur of creation in this case about 500°C (Brand) but because of missing palingenesis it clearly lies below 1000°C. Moldavites or glasses cannot be created by this temperature.
It is morphologically noticeable that in the flat Congo Basin the many parallel running rivers from Angola and Katanga firstly flow convex to the nord and than switched to north-west just as in a parallel rift system. The rivers drift from the straight middle of the meteorite track through the Congo to the west in the direction of Bangui, 2000 km length of the track lasts 10 minutes (meteorite vo = 28,490 km/h after Schuler-Period). The direction of impact from south excludes the asteroid belt as a source.
The system of the overlong, parallel rivers running crosswise through the mountains and level lands of the South Congo Basin
is most likely explicable with a type of long stretched rift valley tectonic of the grazing impact.
Cobalt and Ore Occurrence
In Catanga and Bangui there are pure metallic cobalt deposits, which otherwise do not exist on the earth. Cobalt is strongly ferromagnetic and can only come of an iron meteorite in his metallic form, this also explains the enormous Bangui-Magnet-Anomaly. Half of the world deposit of cobalt lies around the Congo Basin. Other typically extraterrestrial ore deposits such as coltan (Nb, Ta), gold, iron are rich and surficially heaped in rather destroyed sediments. In Bangui at the end of the slideway five clasts of the meteorite sunk down 30 km deep in the earth's crust till to the earth's mantle, as they were very heavy (cobalt 9 g/cm³, iron 8 g/cm³, cobalt ores 6 g/cm³, and magnetite and pyrite 5 g/cm³). In principle that represents the reverse effect of a salt diapir. The other ore occurrences in Catanga are rich and in destroyed sediments. The formation and the distribution of these ores has to be examined of an impact metamorphosis. A definite proof of the high-pressure impact is coesit (high-pressure quartz), may be also stishovit and dust of diamonds. Gold occurrences on the surface and on the random of the impact are also an indication that an impact happened. Through scratching the gold has been liquefied and shot outwards.
Then the lightweight sediments of the sandy dust cloud cover all deposits.
At the same time a stray area of tektites is also verified in South-East Asia and Australia, an impact without a crater
(A. Tollmann). The impact of Tenoumer (Mauritania 1,9 km diameter of the crater) may be a part of the extended flat trajectory
of the Congo Impact.
Also Gela (sediments of a tsunami) is situated in the elongation.
After the heat of the impact had totaly eliminated the whole existence, the Guinea-Congo Basin has developed a particular
plant kingdom. First extensive peat deposit occurs. The new fauna of the devasted Congo Basin originates under unrivalled
environmental situation. The evolution induces smaller (forest elephant) and more peaceful (bonobos: border is the River
The human Homo habilis in Africa uses the first tool about 2.5 mio years ago.
An expedition to the Congo could deliver verifications. It is possible that a 100 m meteorite may appear every 1000 years. The one kilometre large meteorite of Nördlingen is punched in 15 mio. year ago. Also the Tunguska Impact (1909) and the Siberian comet (Tscheljabinsk 2013) are a sign of the frequency. The recognition and time of forewarning of an 100 m large meteorite (which produces a 3 km large crater) amounts about 24 hours.
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